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3rd International Conference on Flu and Emerging Infectious Disease: Control & Prevention , will be organized around the theme “Fighting Flu & Infections with Innovative Technique”
Flu and Infectious Diseases 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Flu and Infectious Diseases 2018
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Infectious disease whose incidence in human has increased in the past 2 decades (or) threatens to be in the near future have been defined as " Emerging". These diseases include new infections, previously nonrecognized infections and old infections reappearing due to antimicrobial resistance and public health issues due to unhygienic conditions.
- Track 1-1Re-emerging infectious diseases
- Track 1-2Bacterial infectious diseases
- Track 1-3Lower respiratory infections
- Track 1-4Fungal and mycobacterial infectious diseases
- Track 1-5Viral infectious diseases
- Track 1-6Diseases with bioterrorism potential
- Track 1-7Protozoan and parasitic infectious diseases
- Track 1-8Vector borne diseases
The extent of the global burden of infectious diseases depends on the already prevailing incidences and prevalences of familiar infections together with the consistent, but uneven, flow of emerging and reemerging infections. Infectious diseases emerging throughout history have included some of the most dangerous plagues of the past. As new infections continue to emerge today, while many of the old plagues are still with us. Infectious disease can be transmitted by person to person by direct or indirect contact where Micro-organisms, viruses ,fungi and parasites are most common source of transmission.
- Track 2-1Geographic distribution of Emerging infectious diseases
- Track 2-2Route of transmission
- Track 2-3Spread through blood or other body fluids
- Track 2-4Transmission cycle and reservoir
- Track 2-5Transmission level and transmission rate
- Track 2-6Endemic versus epidemic
Most of the emerging infections appear to be caused by pathogens already present in the environment, brought out of obscurity or given a selective advantage by changing conditions and afforded an opportunity to infect new host populations. The process by which infectious agents may transfer from animals to humans or disseminate from isolated groups into new populations can be called microbial traffic . A number of activities increase microbial traffic and as a result promote emergence and epidemics.
- Track 3-1Ecological Changes and Agricultural Development
- Track 3-2Changes in Human Demographics and Behavior
- Track 3-3International Travel and Commerce
- Track 3-4Technology and Industry
- Track 3-5 Microbial Adaptation and Change
For preventing infectious diseases the human body has several general mechanisms. Some of these mechanisms are referred to as nonspecific defenses because they operate against a wide range of pathogens. Some of the other mechanisms are referred to as specific defenses because they target particular pathogens and pathogen-infected cells.
- Track 4-1 Nonspecific mechanisms
- Track 4-2 Specific mechanisms of host resistance
- Track 4-3Immunity
- Track 4-4Vaccination
Developed countries have regulations that help to protect the general public from infectious diseases. Public health measures typically involve eliminating the pathogen from the reservoir or from its route of transmission. The measures include ensuring a safe water supply, effectively managing sewage treatment and disposal, and initiating food safety, animal control, and vaccination programs.
- Track 5-1Safe water
- Track 5-2Sewage treatment and disposal
- Track 5-3Food safety programs
- Track 5-4Animal control programs
- Track 5-5Vaccination programs
- Track 5-6Public health organizations
Influenza viruses are among the most common causes of human respiratory infections, and are also among the most significant because they cause high morbidity and mortality. Influenza outbreaks have apparently occurred since atleast the Middle Ages. In the elderly, in infants, and in people with chronic diseases, influenza is associated with especially high mortality. In the United States, flu results in approximately 200,000 hospitalizations and 36,000 deaths in a typical endemic season.
- Track 6-1Structure of influenza virus
- Track 6-2Influenza virus RNA genome
- Track 6-3The neuraminidase of influenza virus
- Track 6-4Influenza virus RNA: Translation into protein
- Track 6-5Entry into Cells
- Track 6-6Rna synthesis
- Track 6-7Assembly
Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines that fight agaist the flu in your body. The two classes of antiviral drugs used against influenza are neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir) and M2 protein inhibitors (adamantane derivatives). Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products(EMEA), now a days force developers as well as manufacturers to improve their production and purification processes for viral vectors and vaccines.
- Track 7-1Antiviral drugs for influenza
- Track 7-2Antiviral drug development and treatment strategies, including vaccination
- Track 7-3Advances in viral detection and identification technologies
- Track 7-4Antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance during flu infection
- Track 7-5National and international surveillance and contingency strategies
- Track 7-6Antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance during flu infection
Influenza drug effectivity is evaluated in clinical trials conducted within the setting of current, naturally occurring influenza illness. However, a drug effective within the treatment of seasonal influenza might not be effective or as effective in pandemic influenza or in sporadic cases caused by alternative novel strains. Avian influenza, listed by the World organisation for Animal Health (OIE), has become a illness of nice importance for animal and human health.
- Track 8-1Interaction between Influenza and Pneumococcal Pneumonia
- Track 8-2Zoonotic infection
- Track 8-3Virus-host interaction and co-infection
- Track 8-4Chest infection and other respiratory infection along with flu
The word “Antibiotic” has become the most commonly used word to refer to a chemical substance used to treat bacterial infections. The term "antimicrobial" usually refers to anything that preventss the growth of microbes. Technically, the term antimicrobial does not encompass the "antihelminthic" drugs because parasitic worms are not microscopically small. Antimicrobials can be either microbistatic (preventing the replication of the microbe) or microbicidal (actually killing the target microorganism).
- Track 9-1Treatment of bacterial diseases
- Track 9-2Treatment of viral diseases
- Track 9-3Treatment of fungal and parasitic diseases
- Track 9-4Resistance to antimicrobial agents
- Track 9-5Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance
- Track 9-6Transfer of antimicrobial-resistance genes
Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or jabs, are vaccines that protect against influenza. A new version of the vaccine is developed twice a year as the influenza virus rapidly changes. While their effectiveness varies from year to year, most provide modest to high protection against influenza. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control recommends yearly vaccination for nearly all people over the age of six months, especially those at high risk.
- Track 10-1Vaccine innovation and human health
- Track 10-2Effectiveness of multivalent vaccines
- Track 10-3Developing a universal flu vaccine
- Track 10-4Success and challenges of vaccines on infants, children, pregnant women and elderly patient
- Track 10-5Various influenza vaccine delivery technologies
The explosive nature of epidemic flu and the specific clinical features of this disease have given definitive epidemiological records of this infection since the beginning of the nineteenth century. Some of the epidemics were recorded during the nineteenth century but the first pandemic was not precisely recorded until 1889-92. A second pandemic, probably originating in Europe, occurred in 1918-19, and is called as Spanish Influenza. It is responsible for 20-25 million deaths, principally in young adults. It was suggested that this strain had unusual virulence
- Track 11-1Antigenic Shift
- Track 11-2Antigenic Drift
- Track 11-3Interaction between Influenza and Pneumococci
- Track 11-4Treatment and prevention from influenza
- Track 11-5Upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and treatment
The first and foremost efforts to develop influenza vaccines were initiated soon after influenza A and B viruses were identified as the etiologic agents of clinical influenza. The United States in 1945 has approved the first commercial vaccines using whole-inactivated influenza virus for use. The flu vaccine is an annual vaccination using a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus that is specific for a given year. Risk management and effectiveness of vaccines are important for public health.
- Track 12-1Genetic and evolution of virus and host
- Track 12-2Risk management and effectiveness of vaccines
- Track 12-3Targeting strategies for influenza vaccines
- Track 12-4Adjuvants and their improvement issues
- Track 12-5Clinical trails of influenza based vaccines
When flu virus is driven into the respiratory tract, by aerosol or by contact with saliva or other respiratory secretions from an affected individual, it attaches and replicates in epithelial cells. The virus replicates in cells of both the lower and upper respiratory tract. Viral replication combined with the immune response to infection lead to destruction and loss of cells lining the respiratory tract.
- Track 13-1Tracheobronchial Changes in Influenza
- Track 13-2Ciliated pseudostratified epitheepithelium of trachea and bronchi
- Track 13-3Ducts of the mucus glands
- Track 13-4Epithelium of the bronchioli
- Track 13-5Other histologic changes
- Track 13-6In situ hybridization or immunohisto-chemical analysis for influenza virus in sections of the upper airway
- Track 13-7Evidence of epithelial repair and regeneration
- Track 13-8Influenza Virus Pneumonia
- Track 13-9Alveolitis
There are three types of influenza viruses affect people, called Type A, Type B, and Type C. Approximately 33% of people with influenza are asymptomatic. The symptoms of influenza can start quite suddenly one to two days after infection. Fever and extreme coldness , Cough, Nasal congestion, Vomiting, Runny nose, Sneezing, Body aches, especially joints and throat, Fatigue, Headache, skin (especially face), Petechial rash. People with the flu are advised to medications such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) to relieve the fever and muscle aches associated with the flu. Antiviral medication may be effective, if given early, but some strains of influenza can show resistance to the standard antiviral drugs.
- Track 14-1Flu types, symptoms and complexity
- Track 14-2Flu and flu like illness
- Track 14-3Interaction between Influenza and Pneumococci
- Track 14-4Treatment and prevention from influenza
- Track 14-5Upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and treatment
Influenza outbreaks and epidemics constitute ongoing risks to global human public health. Recently, human infections with A/H5N1 avian influenza viruses have intensified the potential for the emergence of an influenza A virus with pandemic potential. Laboratory identification of human influenza virus infections is commonly performed using virus isolation in cell culture, direct antigen detection, or detection of influenza-specific RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In recent years commercial influenza rapid diagnostic tests have become available which are antigen detection tests that produce results within 30 minutes. They can provide results in a clinically relevant time frame to complement the use of antiviral medications for treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza.
- Track 15-1Assays and symptoms
- Track 15-2Rapid detection methods by PCR
- Track 15-3Strain identification assays and rapid diagnostic testing for viral infections
- Track 15-4Biomarkers for influenza
- Track 15-5Diseases with bioterrorism potential
Public health epidemiologic investigations and surveillance are critical public health functions for identifying threats to the health of a community. In an emergency, public health surveillance is the on going systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and management of public health-related data to verify a threat or incident of public health concern, and to characterize and manage it effectively through all phases of the incident. Surveillance data is used to identify and monitor the arrival of influenza, its geographic spread, intensity of activity, characteristics of those infected, as well as severity and changing trends in order to guide prevention and control recommendations.
- Track 16-1History and epidemiology of influenza viruses in the natural reservoir
- Track 16-2New avenues of flu control
- Track 16-3Parainfluenza vs influenza
- Track 16-4Pandemic preparedness issues and licensing issues
- Track 16-5National and international surveillance and contingency strategies