Day 3 :
- Track 10: Global Market for Flu Related Products Track 12: Laws and Ethical Issues Related to Flu Research Track 13: Surveillance Issues and Burden of Disease Track 14: Entrepreneurs Investment Meet
Location: San Francisco, USA
Mechnikov Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera, Moscow, Russia
Time : 10:00 - 10:25
Irina Leneva has completed her PhD at the age of 28 years from Research Institute for Viral Preparations ( Moscow, Russia) and postdoctoral studies from Centre of Chemistry of Drugs ( Moscow, Russia). She is the Head of Experimental Virology Laboratory of I.Mechnikov Institute for Vaccines and Sera. Irina Leneva has nearly 50 publications in reviewed journals. She is the virology scientific councilor for the Russian Society for Infection Diseases. Additionally, she is reviewer for several scientific journals in the areas of virology. Her current research focuses on pathogenesis of viral respiratory diseases, mainly , vaccine and antiviral development against biological threat agents and emerging pathogens, clinical trials of antivirals and vaccines, monitoring resistance to antivirals. Irina Leneva is also interested in developing novel assys and animal models for testing new drugs targeting respiratoty viruses.
Pneumonia often occurs secondary to influenza infection and accounts for a large proportion of the morbidity and mortality associated with seasonal and pandemic influenza outbreaks. The antiviral drug umifenovir (Arbidol) is licenced in Russia for treatment and propylaxis of acute respiratory infection including influenza A and B infection.. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of umifenovir or oseltamivir in a mouse model of secondary S. aureus pneumonia following A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus infection. We also performed a clinical study on the effectiveness of umifenovir in reducing flu-associated pneumonia. Experiments in mice showed that oral treatment with oseltamivir (20 mg/kg/day) and umifenovir (40 and 60 mg/kg/day ) improved survival in mice from 0% to 90%, significantly prolonged survival and abolished weight loss. The treatments also inhibited virus titer by ≥2 logs and viable bacterial counts in the lungs of mice. The lungs of mice treated with oseltamivir or umifenovir showed less-severe histopathologic findings compared to the control group. The observation case-control clinical study was set up in season 2010/2011 and 2014/2015 and included 5287 patients admitted to 88 hospitals with acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) from 50 regions of the Russian Federation. The analysis showed that in high-risk groups of patients the incidence of bacterial complications (pneumonia) was higher than the average for the study population. Our observational studies suggest the benefit of early umifenovir treatment (i.e. within 48 hours after illness onset) in reducing pneumonia incidence in high-risk .
Wuhan University, China
Zhanqiu Yang has completed his MD at the age of 35 years from Wuhan University School of Medicine. He is the director of Institute of Medical Virology, Wuhan University. He has published more than 150 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.
Jiawei-Yupingfeng-Tang (JYT) is a Chinese herbal formula which is widely used against respiratory tract illness. However, its effect against respiratory virus remains unknown. Influenza virus (IFV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) cause million cases of severe illness per year and many of them developing into lethal pneumonia. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether JYT can be used in the treatment of such infections. Methods: The effect of the JYT against IFV and HRSV was tested by plaque reduction assay in the cell lines A549. The expression of ICAM-1 was determined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. A lethal influenza infected mice model developing into interstitial pneumonia was used to evaluate the effect of JYT in vivo. Results: JYT extract dose-dependently inhibited both IFV and HRSV when given before, simultaneous and after viral infection. And it was more effective to block the entry of virus. Furthermore, pre-treatment with JYT can reduce the susceptibility of cells to the invasion of HRSV by inhibiting the expression of ICAM-1. Importantly, JYT extract increased the survival rate of lethal influenza-infected mice, prolonged survival time and alleviated the virus-induced lung lesion, which is compatible with that of ribavirin treatment. Conclusion:. These data support JYT as an alternative modality to be used in the treatment of respiratory viral infection induced by HRSV and IFV.
Sudan International University, Sudan
Title: Antiviral activity and possible mechanisms of action of Acacia nilotica against influenza A virus
Time : 10:45- 11:10
Mona Timan Idriss is presently working as a lecture at faculty of pharmacy, department of microbiology, Sudan International University. Her main and current research work on influenza virus. She completed her master research in Japan and she is pursuing her PhD in Japan and Thailand and Sudan.
We investigated the anti-influenza virus activity of Acacia nilotica and possible mechanism(s) of action in vitro. We found that Acacia nilotica has anti-influenza-virus activity, and both pre-incubation of virus prior to infection and post-exposure of infected cells with Acacia nilotica extract significantly inhibited virus yields. Influenza-virus-induced hemagglutination of chicken red blood cells was inhibited by Acacia extract treatment, suggesting that Acacia can inhibit influenza A virus infection by interacting with the viral hemagglutinin. Furthermore, Acacia extract significantly affect nuclear transport of viral nucleoprotein (NP). To best of our knowledge, this study revealed for the first time that Acacia nilotica extract can inhibit both viral attachment and replication and offers new insights into its underlying mechanisms of antiviral action. The fruit husk ofAcacia nilotica collected from Sudan and Extracted with70% methanol. The crude extract was screened for its cytotoxicity against MDCK cell line by alamar Blue assay and WST-1 assay. Antiviral properties of the plant extract was determined bycytopathic effect inhibition assay and virus yield reduction assay(plaque assay). Time of addition assay, and nuclear export mechanism were also performed.
Pedro Kourí¨ Institute of Tropical Medicine, Cuba
The Influenza, the most contagious of the Acute Respiratory Infections, is considered like an emergent and re-emergent illness, due to the wide circulation of old and new variants among the world population. The World Health Organization estimates that influenza accounts for a quarter to half a million deaths worldwide. Vaccination is currently the only practical means of reducing or counteracting this burden of mortality and morbidity in the community. The production of an optimal influenza vaccine requires the continuous global monitoring of influenza by the National Influenza Centre. The Cuban National Influenza Center is located at the Pedro Kouri Institute and has the responsibility to carry out the national virological surveillance of influenza and others respiratory viruses. During the past 10 years, it had been working together with national health authorities on the planning, implementation and improvement of the national surveillance program of Acute Respiratory Infections. From, 2009 to 2014, 38 935 respiratory samples from patient with clinical diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Infection were processed using an algorithm of molecular diagnosis for the detection of 16 respiratory viruses. The total of positive samples to influenza viruses were characterized molecularly; including the nucleic acid sequencing. The mayor positivity was detected for influenza A virus, particularly for the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, following influenza B viruses. In 2012 we detected the reintroduction of influenza B lineage Yamagata associated with a high rate of morbidity. Most characterized influenza A viruses matched with the vaccine strains with the exception of the circulating viruses during the season 2014-2015. These results suggest a low preventive effect of the seasonal influenza vaccine for the next season. However, the vaccine effectiveness may vary throughout the influenza season. The early estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness obtained in mid-season may drop during the season. This situation should be kept in mind given its implications for clinical practice and public health.
Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China
Taijiao Jiang is a professor of computational and systems biology at Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College. Dr. Jiang was trained in both biology and computer science, with a Ph.D. of Molecular Biology from Chinese Academy of Sciences (1999) and a Master degree in Computer Science from Yale University (2003). He has been working on computational and systems biology since 1999 including the postdoctoral work with Professor Sidney Altman of Yale during 1999-2001 and with Professor Amy Keating at MIT during 2003-2005. In 2005, Dr. Jiang joined in the Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Since 2013, Dr. Jiang, as one of the co-founders, has participated in setting up the Suzhou Institute of Systems Medicine (ISM), a joint initiative between Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and the local government of Suzhou Industry Park (SIP) and Suzhou Municipality.
The advancement of high throughput sequencing technology coupled with internet technology has enabled us to acquire massive genomic data for in-depth understanding of disease mechanisms, facilitating more effective strategies for disease prevention and treatment. In our lab, by focusing influenza viruses, we have developed a series of methods to model influenza antigenic evolution from the massive gene data collected during influenza surveillance carried out by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC). Furthermore, we have proposed network-based approaches for effective seasonal influenza vaccine strain selection. No doubt, the effective mining of the big genomic data related to diseases will not only greatly facilitate the prevention and control of infectious diseases but also advance the precision medicine for complex diseases like malignant tumors.