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3rd International Conference on Flu and Emerging Infectious Diseases, will be organized around the theme “Understanding the Flu and Infectious Diseases; Risk Analysis and Prevention”

Flu-2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Flu-2017

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An infectious disease whose occurrence has increased in the past years or threatens to increase is termed as emerging. These diseases include new infections, previously unrecognized infections and old infections reappearing due to antimicrobial resistance and public health issues due to unhygienic conditions. Many emerging diseases are zoonotic - an animal reservoir incubates the organism, with only occasional transmission into human populations.

  • Track 1-1Re-emerging infectious diseases
  • Track 1-2Bacterial infectious diseases
  • Track 1-3Lower respiratory infections
  • Track 1-4Fungal and mycobacterial infectious diseases
  • Track 1-5Viral infectious diseases
  • Track 1-6Diseases with bioterrorism potential
  • Track 1-7Protozoan and parasitic infectious diseases
  • Track 1-8Vector borne diseases

An Emerging Infectious disease whose occurrence has expanded in the past years or threatens to increase is called emerging infectious diseases. These diseases incorporate new infections or diseases, previously unrecognized infections and old infections reappearing due to antimicrobial/antiviral resistance, public health issues and unhygienic conditions. Emerging Infectious disease can be transmitted from person to person by direct or indirect contact. Microorganisms, viruses, parasites, and fungi are common source of transmission.   Mechanism of Microbial resistance by microorganisms includes mechanisms of enzymatic modification, enzymatic destruction, altered target and decreased uptake. Resistance mechanism works due to the inactivation or modification of antibiotics, an alteration in the target site of the antibiotic that reduces its binding capacity, the modification of metabolic pathways to circumvent the antibiotic effect and the reduced intracellular antibiotic accumulation by decreasing permeability and/ or increasing active efflux of the antibiotic.

  • Track 2-1Route of transmission
  • Track 2-2Transmission cycle and reservoir
  • Track 2-3Transmission level and transmission rate
  • Track 2-4Endemic versus epidemic
  • Track 2-5Spread through blood or other body fluids

The framework is additionally a convoluted arrangement of cooperation of cells to segregate antigens, subsequently shielding the living beings from contaminations of assorted classes. Vaccination is considered to be one in everything about conservative procedures in bar of innumerable sicknesses; insusceptibility that is given due to vaccination is agile for wipeout of the different contaminations and illnesses though debilitating the consequences of the numerous different infections especially inside the creating nations. There are those vaccination, that are regulated completely when the patient has gotten an ailment. The intent of such vaccination is to trigger a rapid response with debilitated symptoms and hurt as that of the regular contamination. Recognizable proof of a particular specialist for a specific contamination or a wellbeing issue is done in clinical presentation. Diagnostic biological science laboratory plays a vital role in diagnosing with uninflected of microbiological culture being the primitive approach for isolation of the favorable living being inside the lab that is that then nearly taken after by the natural science tests then propelled therapeutic science measures and in this manner a definitive stride is the compound responses.

  • Track 3-1Mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis
  • Track 3-2Host pathogen interactions
  • Track 3-3Identification, cloning and sequencing of relevant genes
  • Track 3-4Antimicrobials/antibiotics/ antibacterials treatment
  • Track 3-5Antiinflammatory drugs and NSAIDS
  • Track 3-6Vaccines and vaccination

Infectious diseases prevention and control is helpful to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases. Aseptic technique is normally applied to prevent the infections caused by different means. Sterilization is another process of killing microorganisms by the application of heat. Disinfection is the process of killing harmful microorganisms. Some infectious diseases can be prevented by avoiding direct contact with the contagious person. Infections can also be controlled and prevented by creating public awareness on various infectious diseases and their outbreaks. Infections can be cured by various antimicrobials.

  • Track 4-1Detection of molecular targets for drug development
  • Track 4-2Good hygienic practices
  • Track 4-3Public awareness about emerging infectious diseases

Flu Vaccine is an annual vaccination using a vaccine that is specific for a given year to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. Risk management and effectiveness of vaccines are important for public health. In the United States, NIAID laboratories are developing novel vaccine candidates for seasonal influenza viruses and for avian strains with pandemic potential. In late 2006, the NIAID Vaccine Research Center initiated the first human trial of an investigational DNA vaccine against the H5N1 avian influenza virus, a strain that has infected and continues to threaten humans. In addition, researchers in the NIAID Laboratory of Infectious Diseases are working with MedImmune to generate candidate live-attenuated vaccines for a broad range of influenza subtypes with pandemic potential. To date, five of these vaccine candidates have advanced to Phase I clinical trials. Many Ebola vaccine candidates had been developed in the decade prior to 2014, but none has yet been approved for clinical use in humans.

  • Track 5-1Genetic and evolution of virus and host
  • Track 5-2Risk management and effectiveness of vaccines
  • Track 5-3Targeting strategies for influenza vaccines
  • Track 5-4Adjuvants and their improvement issues
  • Track 5-5Clinical trails of influenza based vaccines

These days success and challenges of vaccines on infants, children, pregnant women and elderly patient is major concern for influenza research. Evidence-based guidelines for immunization of infants, children, adolescents, and adults have been prepared by an Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). These guidelines are prepared for health care professionals who care for either immunocompetent or immunocompromised people of all ages. Vaccine innovation and human health researchers try to determine how well flu vaccines work to regularly assess and confirm the value of flu vaccination as a public health intervention in each season. Study results about how well a flu vaccine works can vary based on study design, outcome(s) measured, population studied and the season in which the flu vaccine was studied. These differences can make it difficult to compare one study’s results with another’s. rough the support of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and NIAID, researchers are developing various influenza vaccine delivery technologies that will help the United States and the world be better prepared to mount a speedy response to the next pandemic

  • Track 6-1Vaccine innovation and human health
  • Track 6-2Effectiveness of multivalent vaccines
  • Track 6-3Developing a universal flu vaccine
  • Track 6-4Success and challenges of vaccines on infants, children, pregnant women and elderly patient
  • Track 6-5Various influenza vaccine delivery technologies

Influenza viruses are significant human respiratory pathogens that cause both seasonal, endemic infections and periodic, unpredictable pandemics. The pathologic changes described in the 1918 influenza pandemic is not significantly different from the histopathology observed in other less lethal pandemics or even in deaths occurring during seasonal influenza outbreaks. People with chronic pulmonary or cardiac disease, or diabetes mellitus, are at high risk of developing severe complications from influenza A viruses, which may include hemorrhagic bronchitis, pneumonia (primary viral or secondary bacterial), and death. Pathophysiology of influenza infection virus is transmitted through infected respiratory droplets that are aerosolised by coughing, sneezing, or talking. In influenza significant life-threatening pathological conditions that could be considered the cause of death included diffuse alveolar damage, extensive secondary pneumonia, extensive intraalveolar hemorrhage, viral pneumonitis, myocarditis and meningoencephalitis.

  • Track 7-1Pathogenesis of influenza in humans
  • Track 7-2Co-pathogenesis and prognosis

Three types of flu viruses: A, B, and C are present. Type A and B cause the annual influenza epidemics that have up to 20% of the population sniffling, aching, coughing, and running high fevers. Type C also causes flu; however, type C flu symptoms are much less severe. The flu is linked to between 3,000 and 49,000 deaths and 200,000 hospitalizations each year in the United States. The seasonal flu vaccine was created to try to avert these epidemics. Ebola share some common symptoms, such as fever, headache, fatigue and aches and pains. But there are big differences, too. Influenza causes cough, sore throat and runny nose, while Ebola does not. Ebola leads to vomiting and diarrhea within three to six days, severe weakness and stomach pain, as well as unexplained bleeding and bruising. There is lots of difference between flu and flu like illness. Influenza-like illness (ILI), also known as acute respiratory infection and flu-like syndrome/symptoms, is a medical diagnosis of possible influenza or other illness causing a set of common symptoms. The causes of influenza-like illness range from benign self-limited illnesses such as gastroenteritis, rhinoviral disease, and influenza, to severe, sometimes life-threatening, diseases such as meningitis, sepsis, and leukemia.

  • Track 8-1Flu types, symptoms and complexity
  • Track 8-2Flu and flu like illness
  • Track 8-3Interaction between Influenza and Pneumococci
  • Track 8-4Treatment and prevention from influenza
  • Track 8-5Upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and treatment

Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid, an inhaled powder, or an intravenous solution) that fight against the flu in your body. Antiviral drugs are different from antibiotics, which fight against bacterial infections. Studies show that flu antiviral drugs work best for treatment when they are started within 2 days of getting sick. There are three FDA-approved influenza antiviral drugs recommended by CDC this season to treat influenza. The brand names for these are Tamiflu® (generic name oseltamivir), Relenza® (generic name zanamivir), and Rapivab® (generic name peramivir). Tamiflu® is available as a pill or liquid and Relenza® is a powder that is inhaled. (Relenza® is not for people with breathing problems like asthma or COPD, for example.) Rapivab® is administered intravenously by a health care provider. Viral vectors and viral vaccines more and more play an important role in current medical approaches. Higher safety demands, that is, reduction of side effects, by regulatory authorities like Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA), nowadays force developers as well as manufacturers to improve their production and purification processes for viral vectors and vaccines. For influenza viral vaccines, manufacturers begin to switch from egg cultivation to mammalian cell culture systems.

  • Track 9-1Antiviral drugs for influenza
  • Track 9-2Antiviral drug development and treatment strategies, including vaccination
  • Track 9-3Advances in viral detection and identification technologies
  • Track 9-4Antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance during flu infection
  • Track 9-5Antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance during flu infection

Avian influenza, listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), has become a disease of great importance for animal and human health. Millions of animals have died, and concern is growing over the loss of human lives and management of the pandemic potential. Vaccinology for avian influenza is critical. Birds receiving a primary vaccination with Ad-NP+M1 and a secondary vaccination with MVA-NP+M1 exhibited reduced cloacal shedding as measured by plaque assay at 7 days post infection compared with birds vaccinated with recombinant viruses containing irrelevant antigen.  Since 2002, various wild bird species also have succumbed to infection with the Eurasian H5N1 HPAI viruses. The pathogenesis of AI is complex and the ability of these viruses to produce disease and death in avian species. Importance of continued investigation of the pathobiology of both low- and HPAIV infections in wild birds which is essential in the understanding of their epidemiology and, in turn, can contribute to the design and implementation of preventive and control measures to protect the health of humans and animals. The spread of swine flu around the world was classed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a global pandemic. After 6 July 2009, the WHO stopped producing detailed worldwide figures. The WHO GISRS laboratories tested more than 39 635 specimens. 2980 were positive for influenza viruses, of which 1044 (35%) were typed as influenza A and 1936 (65%) as influenza B. Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses, 359 (46.6%) were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 412 (53.4%) were influenza A(H3N2). Of the characterized B viruses, 155 (95.1%) belonged to the B-Yamagata lineage and 8 (4.9%) to the B-Victoria lineage. Public awareness of the human health risks of zoonotic infections has grown in recent years. Currently, concern of H5N1 flu transmission from migratory bird populations has increased with foci of fatal human cases. This comes on the heels of other major zoonotic viral epidemics in the last decade.

  • Track 10-1Interaction between Influenza and Pneumococcal
  • Track 10-2Zoonotic infection
  • Track 10-3Interaction between Influenza and Pneumococcal
  • Track 10-4Virus-host interaction and co-infection
  • Track 10-5Chest infection and other respiratory infection along with flu

Influenza outbreaks and epidemics pose ongoing risks to global human public health. Recently, human infections with A/H5N1 avian influenza viruses have heightened the potential for the emergence of an influenza A virus with pandemic potential. Laboratory identification of human influenza virus infections is commonly performed using direct antigen detection, virus isolation in cell culture, or detection of influenza-specific RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In recent years commercial influenza rapid diagnostic tests have become available. These are mostly antigen detection tests, which can produce results within 30 minutes. They can provide results in a clinically relevant time frame to complement the use of antiviral medications for treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza. Their wide availability has resulted in their increasing application to clinical situations, which may be inappropriate or where scientific data are lacking.

  • Track 11-1Assays and symptoms
  • Track 11-2Rapid detection methods by PCR
  • Track 11-3Strain identification assays and rapid diagnostic testing for viral infections
  • Track 11-4Biomarkers for influenza

Influenza is an RNA virus associated with five different viral proteins and is surrounded by a lipid membrane. Two glycoprotein molecules, known as hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) on the lipid envelope and plays crucial role in the infection of the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract. The pathogenicity and virulence of the influenza virus is determined by several Host and Viral factors. Viruses have evolved this way in order to escape the immune systems of their hosts. The influenza virus can only replicate after invading selected living cells and growing inside them. It makes thousands of new virus particles from the cellular machinery and then goes on to infect other cells. immune mechanisms can lead to both localized as well as systemic effects. Cytokines, rapidly produced after infection by epithelial and immune cells of the respiratory mucosa, are local hormones that activate cells, especially within the immune system.

  • Track 12-1Viral replication strategies and host genetics of infections
  • Track 12-2nnate immunity and infection
  • Track 12-3Genetics of orthomyxovirus and other respiratory virus
  • Track 12-4Influenza antibodies and proteins

Public health epidemiologic investigations and surveillance are critical public health functions for identifying threats to the health of a community. In an emergency, public health surveillance is the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and management of public health-related data to verify a threat or incident of public health concern, and to characterize and manage it effectively through all phases of the incident. Surveillance data is used to identify and monitor the arrival of influenza, its geographic spread, intensity of activity, characteristics of those infected, as well as severity and changing trends in order to guide prevention and control recommendations.

  • Track 13-1History, epidemiology and pathology of influenza viruses in the natural reservoir
  • Track 13-2Parainfluenza vs influenza
  • Track 13-3New avenues of flu control
  • Track 13-4Pandemic preparedness issues and licensing issues
  • Track 13-5National and international surveillance and contingency strategies